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You can view and download the TRCN test syllabus for degree holders (B.Ed. or B.Sc. with PGDE), which includes a list of all the subjects from which this year’s TRCN exam questions will be drawn.
The 23 subjects under General Education will be covered by the TRCN exam, with an emphasis on ICT, English, library use, mathematics, educational statistics, and research methods.
This syllabus includes the instructions for these topics.
The TRCN exam syllabus is the identical for all teacher categories, however the level of comprehension and analysis required increases from Category D to Category A.
You must cover the sections listed below and the TRCN SYLLABUS FOR NCE holders as a degree holder (category C).
Table of Contents
TRCN exam syllabus for Degree holders
You can download the TRCN curriculum in PDF format for free at the bottom of this library.
PQE 001: History of Education
1. History of Western, traditional and Islamic Education in Nigeria and their impact on present system of Education in Nigeria
- Overview of the National Policy on Education –
- The national philosophy,
- objectives and directive
- principles related to education;
- The national educational philosophy, goals and values;
- Types of education and critical issues recognized by the National Policy on Education; etc.
- Traditional African Education, its functionality and relationship with modern education.
- Brief account of the Early Greek and Roman Education in the Western World.
- Introduction of Christian Missionary/Western Education to Nigeria:
- Covering the pre-colonial through the Independence to the present time.
- Origin and development of Islamic Education in Nigeria.
- Current issues in Nigerian Education:
- The 6-3-3-4 system;
- The prospects and constraints of the PPP – Public Private Partnership – model in the ownership and control of education; etc.
PQE 002: Philosophy of Education
2. Philosophical Thought that influenced Educational development and practices around the world and in Nigeria.
- Philosophy and education.
- Various schools of thought in philosophy and their impact on education.
- The philosophical bases for primary, secondary, tertiary and teacher education.
- Educational issues and problems as they relate to the philosophy of education in Nigeria.
PQE 003: Sociology of Education
3. Sociological foundations of education; influence of sociological factors on Nigerian education and the transformation of society through education. Emerging issues – Gender, Security, Out- of- School, Family Life, Albinism, Child Trafficking, etc.
- Sociology and Education;
- The school as a social system;
- Education, development and social mobility in Nigeria;
- Educational problems and efforts to solve them.
- The role of the teacher.
- Structuring of educational programmes.
- The concept and scope of
- Sociology of Education.
- The concept, types, process and agents of socialization –
- the family,
- peer group,
- mass media,
- religious organizations, etc.
- The concepts of culture and subculture;
- Norms and values; and other important sociological concepts relevant to education;
- Education as culture.
- Social change: Education as agent of social change in Nigeria.
- The social learning theories and principles: The Labeling theories, etc.
- The school as a social system; socialization processes at the school; social factors that affect adaptation and learning at school.
- Cases: social problems in the school, their causes, prevention and management, e.g. cultism and gangsterism; robbery, rape, examination malpractice, alcoholism, drug abuse; moral decadence, mass academic failure; etc.
- The roles of the teacher in the management of social problems in the school.
- Factors that affect the development of Education in a country: socio-political, economic, cultural, etc.
PQE 004: Educational Psychology: Child, Adolescence & Adult Psychology; Human Learning
4. Human Development and Human Learning
- Stages and determinants of human development from birth to adulthood.
- Effects of heredity and environment on the physical, cognitive, social, moral and emotional development of an individual.
- The relation and application of psychological principles to educational practice and performance.
- Introduction to the field of Educational Psychology.
- Role of Psychology in the learning process.
- Principles, stages and characteristics of human growth and development;
- To include the cognitive/intellectual, moral, psychomotor/skill, verbal/language, etc dimensions.
- Selected theories of personality (Minimum of two theories).
- The nature/nurture debate (Heredity andenvironment).
- Psychology and Instruction:
- Psychological factors that affect learning;
- Psychological foundations of intelligence, motivation, etc;
- Individual differences and effect on academic performance; etc.
PQE 005: Guidance & Counseling — Theory & Practice
5. Administration and organisation of Guidance services
- The concept, scope and goals of Guidance and Counseling in schools.
- Theories of Counseling.
- Guidance and Counseling tests.
- Ethics of Guidance and Counseling services in schools.
- Cases: Studies of specific learner/learning problems that require good knowledge of psychology, guidance and counseling and applicable strategies; Problem-solving techniques, etc.
PQE 006: The Teaching Profession
6. Provisions of the TRCN Act CAP T3 and TRCN mandates, programmes, successes, challenges and way forward. Roles of subject and professional associations in the development of the teaching profession.
- Historical development of teaching as a profession in Nigeria.
- Provisions of the TRCN Act 31 of 1993.
- Activities, programmes and policies of TRCN especially in the areas of
- Registration and licensing of teachers
- Mandatory continuing professional education.
- Induction and internship schemes.
- Control of professional misconduct, incompetence and negligence.
- Accreditation, monitoring and supervision of teacher education programmes. Etc.
- Review of TRCN basic publications – Teachers Code of Conduct, Nigerian Journal of Professional Teachers, etc.
- Comparisons of the regulation of teaching in Nigeria and abroad.
- Comparisons of the regulation of teaching and other professions in Nigeria.
- Successes, challenges and strategies for the advancement of the teaching profession in Nigeria.
PQE 007: Teacher Education
7. Teacher education issues and strategies for improvement; Trends in Teacher Education
- Concepts, aims and objectives of senior secondary school teacher education;
- Roles of the teacher in the school and as a member of a population group in Nigeria.
- Teacher education issues, problems and strategies for improvement.
PQE 008: Classroom Management & School Organisation
8. Effective management of classrooms and schools; Management of learner and school records.
- Concept of classroom management and organisation –
- class organisation,
- classroom leadership,
- classroom arrangement,
- class control,
- class discipline, etc;
- Concept and essence of school public relations;
- Factors influencing school –
- public relations;
- staff-management relations;
- student-staff relations;
- parent-staff relations;
- school environment;
- school programme;
- school performance;
- school tone.
PQE 009: Educational Technology/Information and Communication Technology in Education
9. Appreciation, design, process, application and effects of techniques in the teaching/learning situation. Integration of ICT in teaching and learning process. Other new technologies.
- The concept, scope and role of Educational Technology in the teaching learning process.
- Communication theories and models:
- Types of Communication
- Models; Dale, Schramm, SMCR, Early Systems Mass Communication
- The System Approach of Instructional Technology
- Component, goals, conditions, resources, outcomes, etc.
- The resources of Instruction
- Non-human: print graphics/transparencies,audio, audiovisual realia, games, simulations, multi-media, etc.
- Principles for the Improvisation of teaching aids/media.
- The concept, parts and functions of a computer.
- The use/appreciation of computer.
- Computing/typesetting skills.
- Application packages:
- Microsoft Word;
- Power Point,
- Excel, etc.
- Production of documents using a computer.
- Creation and use of emails and internet-based facilities.
- Internet based research.
- Use of the internet –
- social media, etc
PQE 010: Subject Methodology
10. Principles and Theories of teaching specific subject matter areas. Current trends in subject methodology. Improvisation; Open and Distance Learning (ODL)
- Classes of learning objectives:
- expressive, etc objectives.
- Formulation of behavioural objectives.
- The concept of general and subject methodology.
- Factors that determine methodology.
- Overview of general teaching methods and techniques, their relative strengths and weaknesses.
- The lesson plan as basic tool; format of a lesson plan.
- Three broad groupings in instruction
- Lecture or large group instruction
- Small/medium group interactive instruction
- Individual or self-instruction
- Issues in delivery of instruction
- Logical progression
- Pace and language
- Time management
- Classroom management/discipline
- Use of resources; visual aids, chalkboard, etc
- Questioning techniques, etc.
- The concept and benefits of individualized instruction:
- Primary focus on individual differences and designs that enable learners to develop at their own pace.
- The problems and strategies for the management of large classes.
- Subject methods;
- Theoretical material;
- Practical material;
PQE 011: Theory and Practice of Child-Friendly Schools (CFS)
11. Creating enabling environment for teaching and learning in Nigeria.
- Concept, principles and models of CFS – definition of CFS, Key generic principles of CFS based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, child-centredness democratic participation, inclusiveness;
- Quality as holistic and multi-dimensional;
- Characteristics of CFS –
- Principle 1 (child rights and inclusive education),
- Principle 2 (effective teaching and learning environments),
- Principle 3 (safe supportive and protective learning environments),
- Principle 4 (healthy and health-seeking learning environments),
- Principle 5 (gender sensitive learning environments),
- Principle 6 (democratic participation and partnership building);
- Policies in Nigeria that promote CFS;
- Child friendly school standards and indicators for teacher education;
- Teacher preparation for CFS – child centred interactive methodologies based on constructivist principles and activity based learner centred approach;
- Facilities and resources required for CFS; Assessment of teaching in a CFS; Technology on a CFS learning and teaching;
- Strategies for mainstreaming CFS concepts and principles in Nigeria.
PQE 012: Curriculum Studies
12. Curriculum Development and Implementation
- Key concepts of curriculum development to include objectives, contents, learning opportunities and evaluation;
- Knowledge and skills on curriculum development;
- Relating instruction (lesson objectives, learning experiences, learning materials, methods and media of instruction, etc.) to curriculum.
- Relating curriculum to national goals;
- Overview of curriculum innovations in Nigeria with respect to specific subject areas.
- The concept and scope of Curriculum; Curriculum as a teaching plan.
- Curriculum types/design:
- integrated, core, single subject, etc curriculum
- typologies/design; formal/official and informal/hidden curriculum, etc;
- student-centred and teacher-centred curriculum, etc.
- Components of Curriculum Implementation
- Curriculum content
- Domains of learning and implications for curriculum development:
- Assessment of learning outcomes
- Indices of curriculum non-implementation
- High drop-out/failure rates
- Examination malpractice
- Cultism and other vices
- Poor job performance.
PQE 013: Measurement and Evaluation
13. Test Construction, Administration, Analysis and Implementation
- The concept and scope of measurement and evaluation.
- Uses of tests; classification of tests as teacher-made, standardized, etc;
- Validation of test instruments; etc.
- Types of test items, construction and use
- Short answer type
- Essay type
- Unstructured type: observation, project, excursion, etc.
- Evaluation standardization strategies;
- normal curve,
- standard deviation,
- table of specification,
- error modification,
- standard score and T-score transformation, etc.
- Continuous assessment: concept, scope, rules, strengths and weaknesses.
- Ethics in Measurement and Evaluation.
- Measurement of affective domain: Using self-reports, observation techniques, projective, socio-metric, checklist, strategies, etc.
- Computer based testing, online presentation of students results, etc.
PQE 014: Educational Management
14. Management of educational programmes, institutions, personnel and other resources. Quality Assurance concepts, processes and types.
- Introduction of Educational Management.
- The concept, scope and goals of Management.
- Factors that contribute to effective Management.
- Management processes.
- Planning in the context of education.
- Supervision of schools.
- Managing the Nigerian Educational system.
- The various categories of educational managers and their roles.
- The meaning and scope of Educational Management.
- Policy and legal issues in the management of Education in Nigeria; the control of education in Nigeria.
- Basic principles and functions of Management.
- Concept and types of organization/bureaucratic features of organizations.
- Organizational structure:
- Definition, types (classical and modern organization structures/centralized and decentralized organizations, etc.)
- The concepts of power and authority, types of authority.
- Discipline in schools.
- Programme planning/design in schools (co-curricular activities, examinations, etc.)
- School supervision/inspection:
- Definition, goals, types, principles, etc.
- Traditional and modern methods of school supervision/evaluation.
- Qualities of a good supervisor and evaluator;
- Prospects and constraints of quality assurance processes in Nigerian schools.
- Ethics in Educational Management.
PQE 015: Special Education
15. Strategies for Enhancement of Education of Person’s With Special Needs
- Historical development of Special Education in Nigeria;
- National Policy on Education and Special Education; types of exceptionalities;
- Causes, characteristics, identification and intervention strategies and procedures;
- Attitudes and beliefs;
- Philosophy of education for exceptional children;
- General problems associated with each type of exceptionality and symptoms; inclusive education – implementation, interdisciplinary collaboration, creating and managing inclusive classroom, methodology in inclusive education.
PQE 016: Education of Special Target Groups/Adult Education
16. Strategies for Education of Special Target Groups
- Rationale, objectives and principles of adults, women, migrants, etc;
- Strategies of non-formal education;
- Principles and strategies of Distance Education (DE);
- Distance Learning System (DLS);
- Open and Distance Learning (ODL);
- Issues, problems, strategies and prospects of the education of women, nomads and migrant fishermen, and other sub-groups.
- Nature and scope of adult education;
- Problems and prospects of adult education in Nigeria;
- Characteristics of the adult learner;
- Methods and materials for teaching adults learners;
- Adult education and human resources development in Nigeria;
- Adult education and national development; types of adult education organisations;
- Cross-cultural comparison of adult education programmes.
PQE 017: Comparative Education
17. Comparing Nigerian education system with the education systems in other countries and drawing from the best practices.
- Factors that influence the character and nature of educational systems of countries.
- Patterns of educational thought as reflected in some systems.
- Traditional educational issues and contemporary problems in education affecting technological and other aspects of development.
- Analysis of the Structure of education and schooling processes in selected foreign countries, e.g. one country each selected from Africa, Asia, Europe and America.
- A comparism of the Nigerian Education system with the selected countries.
- Outline of the best practices and strengths of the foreign education systems that Nigeria needs to emulate.
PQE 018: Educational Statistics
18. Statistical foundations for educational research and measurements.
- Statistics and its functions.
- Statistical distributions and their properties.
- Measurement levels and applicable statistics.
- Organization of data (ordinal, simple, frequency distribution, grouped and cumulative, etc.).
- Graphic representation of data – Pictogram, Pie chart, Bar chart and histogram,
- Frequency polygon
- Measures of central tendency – Mode, Median, Mean, etc.
- Measures of dispersion, Range, Standard deviation, etc.
- Decision making; types of errors.
- Various statistical instruments such as the Normal Distribution curve, Student’s t-test, Stanine Scores, t-test, Analysis of Variance, Coefficient of Correlation, etc.
PQE 019: Educational Research Methods
19. Identification of educational problems, research design, data gathering, processing, analyzing, interpreting, inferences and reporting.
- The concepts and typologies of Educational Research (pure and action/applied; historical/descriptive/experimental; quantitative/qualitative/eclectic, etc).
- Planning the research.
- Research topic, statement of problem, objectives, etc.
- Literature review.
- Research design.
- Research methodology.
- Data collection techniques.
- Experimentation, etc.
- Report writing: complete outline of a research report, etc.
- Format for a Research Project.
- Questionnaires and other instruments for data collection.
- Formulation and testing of hypotheses, preparation of research reports.
PQE 020: English Language & Communication Skills
20. Use of effective communication skills and fluency in English language teaching and learning situations and day-to-day interaction.
- Nature and Importance of Classroom Communication.
- Types of language problems among learners and strategies for improvement.
- Grammar: Parts of speech (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, etc); verb tenses, agreement/concord, auxiliary/models, questions, statements, commands; phrases, clauses, sentence types and patterns; direct and indirect speech, common errors; etc.
- Writing: Punctuation, outlining, logical presentation of ideas;
- Paragraphing/structure/development, logical sequencing of paragraphs;
- Compositions – narrative, descriptive, argumentative, explanatory, letter writing formal/informal;
- Report writing, memos, speeches, minutes;
- Writing styles –inductive/deductive, generalizations, etc.
- Reading: Reading problems; principles and techniques for effective reading; reading for various purposes (research, inferences, pleasure, scanning for key ideas, etc); creative reading; etc.
- Listening: Listening types; listening defects; strategies for effective listening.
PQE 021: Use of the Library
21. Effective use of the library for academic and educational research purposes; The concept and use of virtual library.
- Functions and types of library.
- Types of library materials
- Organisational structure of the library.
- Library classification systems, bibliography, catalogues, etc.
- Computerized library operations.
PQE 022: Basic Mathematics
22. Application of basic mathematics in teaching and learning and day-to-day living.
- Binary numbers, conversion from base 2 to base 10 and vice versa; sets definition, notation and diagrams;
- Basic operations on factional and whole numbers;
- Fractions, decimals, and approximations; indices and surds;
- Change of subject of formulae.
- Expansion and factorization of simple algebraic expressions; simple algebraic equations and methods of solutions;
- Simple word problems;
- Simple and compound interests;
- Variations (direct and inverse).
- Units of measurement for money, length, mass, weight, area, volumes;
- Calculations of areas and volumes of 2 and 3 dimensional shapes e.g. triangle, square, rectangles, cylinder.
- Properties and classification of 2 and 3 dimensional shapes;
- Types of angles, horizontal, vertical, parallel and perpendicular lines;
- Representation of data – pictogram, bar and pie charts.
- Frequency distribution – histogram and cumulative frequency distribution;
- Mode, median and mean;
- Range, mean deviation, and standard deviation;
- Simple probability and application.
PQE 023: Micro Teaching Theory
23. Principles and practices of functional micro teaching; Peer teaching.
- Concept and process of micro teaching;
- Relevance of micro teaching to teacher education;
- Set induction;
- Stimulus variation;
- Planned repetition;
- Non-verbal communication; questioning;
- Merits and demerits of micro teaching.
Source: TRCN website
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